Leaderboard
Switzerland
Switzerland
Worldwide
Rank
Level
1
Miklós Horváth
Zürich
99
2
Xingyu Yang
Zürich
85
3
Phoomraphee Luenam
Zürich
84
4
User
Zürich
81
5
User
Zürich
79
6
User
Zug
76
7
User
Zürich
75
8
Amanda Margo
Valais
73
9
Lo Dro
Genève
72
10
RetoCH
Solothurn
70
11
User
Zürich
68
12
User
Neuchâtel
66
13
Hönzger
Aargau
65
14
User
Vaud
65
15
EP
Genève
64
16
User
Zürich
63
17
Lamparsky
Zürich
63
18
Sandro Lindenmann
Sankt Gallen
62
19
Thebananana
Zürich
62
20
Joshua Rohrer
Genève
62
21
User
Vaud
62
22
User
Zürich
61
23
User
Neuchâtel
60
24
Bramart
Zürich
59
25
User
Zürich
58
26
User
Zürich
56
27
Aashrit
Valais
56
28
Yanli Wang
Vaud
54
29
Gianmarco Fabbri
Zug
54
30
User
Sankt Gallen
54
31
User
Valais
53
32
User
Zürich
53
33
User
Zürich
52
34
User
Neuchâtel
52
35
Matt
Genève
52
36
Attila Mathe
Zürich
50
37
User
Zürich
50
38
Kirill Elson
Zürich
50
39
User
Valais
49
40
Georg Felber
Thurgau
49
41
User
Zürich
49
42
SRA
Zürich
48
43
ChessKing
Genève
48
44
Mohamed Belguendouz
Zürich
48
45
User
Aargau
47
46
User
Zürich
47
47
Oscar Björklund
Vaud
47
48
Mathias Blarer
Zürich
46
49
User
Graubünden
45
50
tty 1
Zürich
45
51
User
Zürich
44
52
User
Vaud
44
53
User
Zürich
43
54
User
Basel-Stadt
43
55
knuddelbaer
Zürich
42
56
User
Vaud
42
57
User
Vaud
42
58
User
Vaud
41
59
User
Zürich
41
60
User
Zürich
41
61
User
Genève
41
62
User
Genève
41
63
User
Genève
40
64
User
Bern
40
65
User
Vaud
40
66
Mark (Yu-Cheng) Cheng
Vaud
40
67
User
Zürich
40
68
Louisa
Bern
39
69
User
Luzern
39
70
User
Zürich
39
71
SeaDiamond
Vaud
38
72
User
Zürich
38
73
Andy Bahou
Zürich
38
74
User
Zürich
37
75
User
Zürich
36
76
User
Vaud
36
77
User
Vaud
36
78
User
Zug
35
79
User
Thurgau
35
80
User
Zürich
35
81
User
Zürich
34
82
sonewone
Genève
34
83
User
Zürich
34
84
Jeton
Zürich
34
85
User
Neuchâtel
33
86
User
Zürich
33
87
jojo13
Zürich
33
88
User
Zürich
32
89
User
Bern
32
90
User
Neuchâtel
32
91
User
Vaud
32
92
User
Zürich
31
93
User
Sankt Gallen
31
94
User
Vaud
31
95
User
Vaud
31
96
User
Obwalden
31
97
Mal sar
Zürich
31
98
User
Zürich
30
99
User
Zürich
30
100
User
Zürich
30
101
User
Genève
30
102
User
Neuchâtel
30
103
User
Solothurn
30
104
User
Neuchâtel
29
105
Clau Soliva
Sankt Gallen
29
106
User
Vaud
29
107
User
Bern
29
108
User
Aargau
29
109
Lou
Vaud
29
110
User
Zürich
28
111
User
Zürich
28
112
User
Aargau
28
113
User
Zürich
28
114
dcdavid84
Zürich
28
115
User
Vaud
28
116
User
Vaud
28
117
User
Vaud
28
118
User
Zürich
28
119
User
Zürich
27
120
User
Zürich
27
121
User
Vaud
27
122
User
Zürich
27
123
User
Vaud
27
124
User
Zürich
27
125
User
Zürich
27
126
User
Zürich
26
127
User
Zürich
26
128
User
Bern
26
129
User
Vaud
26
130
User
Sankt Gallen
26
131
User
Zürich
25
132
User
Zürich
25
133
User
Zürich
25
134
User
Zürich
25
135
User
Genève
25
136
User
Basel-Stadt
25
137
User
Zürich
24
138
User
Zürich
24
139
Charlotte Sertic
Zürich
24
140
User
Ticino
24
141
User
Sankt Gallen
24
142
User
Zürich
24
143
User
Zürich
23
144
User
Zürich
23
145
Sean
Genève
23
146
User
Zürich
23
147
User
Sankt Gallen
23
148
User
Vaud
23
149
User
Solothurn
23
150
Joona Soratie
Vaud
22
151
User
Valais
22
152
User
Zürich
22
153
User
Genève
22
154
User
Vaud
22
155
User
Sankt Gallen
22
156
Raphaël Cardinaux
Vaud
22
157
User
Zürich
22
158
User
Zürich
21
159
User
Zürich
21
160
User
Zürich
21
161
User
Genève
21
162
Harry Tuttle
Basel-Landschaft
21
163
jean-mickael nounahon
Zürich
21
164
User
Bern
21
165
User
Sankt Gallen
21
166
User
Vaud
21
167
User
Zürich
21
168
User
Sankt Gallen
21
169
User
Zürich
20
170
User
Zürich
20
171
User
Zürich
20
172
User
Aargau
20
173
User
Genève
20
174
User
Bern
19
175
User
Vaud
19
176
User
Zürich
19
177
User
Aargau
19
178
User
Bern
19
179
SneakyRobot
Basel-Landschaft
19
180
User
Genève
19
181
User
Vaud
19
182
User
Zürich
19
183
User
Vaud
19
184
User
Genève
19
185
User
Genève
19
186
User
Zürich
19
187
User
Genève
18
188
Alix Dups
Freiburg
18
189
User
Vaud
18
190
User
Basel-Stadt
18
191
User
Zürich
18
192
Mònica Morera Ruocco
Basel-Stadt
18
193
Marius Furter
Zürich
18
194
Andy
Zürich
17
195
Tomas Carbo Medem
Vaud
17
196
User
Zürich
17
197
User
Genève
17
198
User
Vaud
17
199
User
Zürich
17
200
User
Vaud
17
201
User
Genève
17
202
User
Aargau
17
203
greenBlackbird
Genève
16
204
User
Vaud
16
205
User
Genève
16
206
User
Vaud
16
207
Mingjie Ma
Vaud
16
208
User
Vaud
16
209
User
Vaud
16
210
User
Zürich
16
211
User
Genève
15
212
User
Zürich
15
213
User
Zürich
15
214
TheMaster
Luzern
15
215
Alex M
Zürich
15
216
Priscilla
Sankt Gallen
15
217
User
Genève
15
218
User
Basel-Stadt
15
219
User
Aargau
15
220
User
Genève
15
221
User
Aargau
15
222
User
Zürich
14
223
User
Zürich
14
224
User
Valais
14
225
User
Vaud
14
226
User
Zürich
14
227
User
Genève
14
228
Lizzy Lisander
Zürich
13
229
User
Bern
13
230
User
Aargau
13
231
Michal Grabowski
Vaud
13
232
User
Vaud
13
233
User
Genève
13
234
User
Aargau
13
235
User
Vaud
13
236
User
Vaud
13
237
User
Zürich
13
238
User
Aargau
13
239
User
Basel-Stadt
12
240
Honzger
Zürich
12
241
User
Vaud
12
242
User
Zürich
12
243
User
Luzern
12
244
User
Genève
12
245
User
Vaud
12
246
User
Zürich
12
247
User
Zürich
12
248
User
Zürich
12
249
User
Genève
11
250
andy
Zürich
11
251
User
Zürich
11
252
User
Valais
11
253
User
Vaud
11
254
User
Vaud
11
255
User
Vaud
11
256
User
Vaud
11
257
Jackson Jackson
Vaud
11
258
User
Vaud
11
259
User
Zürich
11
260
Jannat
Zürich
11
261
User
Zürich
10
262
User
Zürich
10
263
User
Zürich
10
264
User
Genève
10
265
User
Freiburg
10
266
User
Bern
10
267
User
Vaud
10
268
User
Zürich
10
269
User
Zürich
9
270
User
Ticino
9
271
User
Genève
9
272
User
Vaud
9
273
User
Zürich
9
274
User
Solothurn
9
275
Owen Gibbs
Genève
9
276
User
Zürich
9
277
Matt
Vaud
9
278
User
Genève
9
279
User
Vaud
9
280
User
Vaud
8
281
Night Thief
Zürich
8
282
User
Vaud
8
283
User
Zürich
8
284
User
Genève
8
285
User
Vaud
8
286
User
Basel-Stadt
8
287
User
Zug
8
288
User
Genève
8
289
virgil
Zürich
8
290
User
Zürich
8
291
User
Genève
8
292
User
Basel-Stadt
8
293
User
Vaud
8
294
User
Basel-Stadt
8
295
User
Bern
8
296
User
Genève
8
297
User
Genève
8
298
User
Zürich
8
299
User
Luzern
8
300
User
Vaud
8
301
User
Basel-Stadt
8
302
User
Genève
7
303
User
Zürich
7
304
User
Zürich
7
305
User
Freiburg
7
306
User
Zug
7
307
User
Sankt Gallen
7
308
User
Vaud
7
309
User
Vaud
7
310
User
Vaud
7
311
User
Sankt Gallen
7
312
User
Zürich
7
313
User
Zürich
7
314
User
Zürich
7
315
User
Zürich
6
316
User
Zürich
6
317
User
Genève
6
318
User
Zürich
6
319
User
Zürich
6
320
User
Luzern
6
321
User
Vaud
6
322
User
Zürich
6
323
Jerry (Yudingkun) Tan
Vaud
6
324
User
Zürich
6
325
Andrey Tolkachev
Zürich
6
326
User
Vaud
6
327
User
Zürich
6
328
User
Sankt Gallen
6
329
User
Zürich
6
330
User
Zürich
6
331
User
Aargau
6
332
Daniel Bucher
Luzern
6
333
User
Vaud
6
334
User
Vaud
6
335
User
Zürich
6
336
User
Zürich
6
337
User
Vaud
6
338
User
Zug
6
339
User
Zürich
6
340
User
Genève
6
341
User
Ticino
6
342
User
Zürich
6
343
User
Freiburg
5
344
User
Neuchâtel
5
345
User
Vaud
5
346
User
Sankt Gallen
5
347
User
Zürich
5
348
User
Zürich
5
349
User
Vaud
5
350
User
Zürich
5
351
User
Zürich
5
352
User
Zürich
5
353
User
Zug
5
354
User
Vaud
5
355
User
Zürich
5
356
User
Vaud
5
357
User
Vaud
5
358
User
Vaud
5
359
User
Vaud
5
360
User
Sankt Gallen
5
361
User
Zürich
5
362
User
Zürich
5
363
User
Aargau
5
364
User
Zürich
4
365
User
Bern
4
366
User
Vaud
4
367
User
Zürich
4
368
User
Sankt Gallen
4
369
User
Sankt Gallen
4
370
User
Genève
4
371
Radinka Siddiqi
Genève
4
373
User
Zürich
4
374
User
Bern
4
375
User
Solothurn
4
376
User
Aargau
4
377
User
Vaud
4
378
User
Vaud
4
379
User
Zürich
4
380
User
Zürich
4
381
User
Zürich
4
382
User
Zürich
4
383
User
Luzern
4
384
User
Vaud
4
385
User
Zürich
4
386
User
Vaud
4
387
User
Luzern
4
388
User
Zürich
4
389
User
Schwyz
3
390
User
Zürich
3
391
User
Genève
3
392
User
Zürich
3
393
Natalie Tommey
Vaud
3
394
MinnieMouse
Zürich
3
395
User
Zürich
3
396
Camille
Zürich
3
397
User
Vaud
3
398
User
Zürich
3
399
User
Bern
3
400
User
Zürich
3
401
User
Ticino
3
402
User
Zürich
3
403
User
Vaud
3
404
User
Vaud
3
405
User
Zürich
3
406
User
Zürich
3
407
User
Genève
3
408
User
Zürich
3
409
User
Basel-Stadt
3
410
User
Vaud
3
411
User
Thurgau
3
412
User
Aargau
3
413
User
Genève
3
414
User
Obwalden
3
415
User
Zürich
3
416
Laura
Genève
3
417
User
Zürich
3
418
User
Zürich
3
419
User
Zürich
3
420
User
Genève
3
421
User
Zürich
3
422
User
Vaud
3
423
User
Zürich
3
424
User
Vaud
2
425
User
Sankt Gallen
2
426
User
Zürich
2
427
User
Bern
2
428
User
Zürich
2
429
User
Zürich
2
430
User
Zürich
2
431
User
Genève
2
432
User
Vaud
2
433
User
Sankt Gallen
2
434
User
Freiburg
2
435
User
Zürich
2
436
User
Vaud
2
437
User
Zürich
2
438
User
Zürich
2
439
HappySquid
Zug
2
440
User
Zürich
2
441
User
Aargau
2
442
User
Vaud
2
443
User
Sankt Gallen
2
444
User
Bern
2
445
User
Vaud
2
446
User
Zürich
2
447
User
Zürich
2
448
User
Vaud
2
449
User
Vaud
2
450
User
Genève
2
451
User
Ticino
2
452
User
Solothurn
2
453
User
Genève
2
454
User
Vaud
2
455
User
Basel-Stadt
2
456
User
Zürich
2
457
User
Vaud
2
458
User
Zürich
2
459
User
Zürich
2
460
User
Sankt Gallen
2
461
User
Vaud
2
462
User
Vaud
2
463
User
Vaud
2
464
User
Vaud
2
465
User
Freiburg
2
466
User
Vaud
2
467
User
Zürich
2
468
User
Vaud
2
469
User
Zug
2
470
User
Thurgau
2
471
User
Sankt Gallen
2
472
User
Vaud
2
473
User
Genève
2
474
User
Freiburg
2
475
User
Vaud
2
476
User
Luzern
2
477
User
Vaud
2
478
User
Bern
2
479
User
Zürich
2
480
User
Sankt Gallen
2
481
User
Zürich
2
482
User
Zürich
2
483
User
Zürich
2
484
User
Genève
1
485
User
Genève
1
486
User
Zürich
1
487
User
Genève
1
488
User
Zürich
1
489
User
Zürich
1
490
User
Zürich
1
491
User
Genève
1
492
User
Bern
1
493
User
Zürich
1
494
User
Zürich
1
495
User
Zürich
1
496
User
Valais
1
497
User
Zürich
1
498
User
Zürich
1
499
User
Vaud
1
500
User
Zürich
1
501
User
Genève
1
502
User
Genève
1
503
User
Zürich
1
504
User
Zürich
1
505
User
Zürich
1
506
User
Genève
1
507
User
Zürich
1
508
User
Zürich
1
509
User
Zürich
1
510
User
Genève
1
511
User
Vaud
1
512
User
Schwyz
1
513
User
Aargau
1
514
User
Vaud
1
515
User
Zürich
1
516
User
Zürich
1
517
User
Valais
1

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A Web App for Mathematics Training

Do you want to be fast at mental math? Many people do, but the options for doing the necessary exercises are simply too cumbersome for all but the most dedicated of trainees. In physical fitness, many people are interested in training their bodies but allocating the time, energy, and money for it is a significant obstacle. Likewise, lugging around books and whatnot for math practice is a threshold that just doesn't meet the standards of modern life.

Training yourself to be skilled at mental math needs to be quick and convenient. mathtrainer.org is a web app that works in your browser rather than a program you have to download and install on your computer or phone. This allows users to try and use the app without having to install new software. As a web app, updates are also much simpler. There is no need to download endless updates—the website will always be the most current version.

You can access a web app from any device connected to the internet and equipped with a web browser, including smartphones, tablets, and desktop computers. Moreover, you are free to use whichever browser you prefer, including Google Chrome, Safari, Firefox, and others. Google Chrome is the recommended browser for the best maths training since it tends to lead the pack in supporting the latest web technologies.

Math Trainer is designed to offer a similar experience regardless of what you’re using to access it, whether it be Android, iOS, Windows, or another operating system. Though an on-screen touch keyboard will appear on mobile devices, you may prefer to use the app on a desktop with a keyboard. Hopefully the advantages of a web app for convenient mathematics training are apparent.

Another part of making the app easy to use is eliminating the need for signing up and logging in. Users can get started with their math training as soon as they click the start button on this page. After progressing to higher levels in the app, your progress is automatically saved so long as your return to the site through the same browser.


What's a Mental Math Tip?

A mental math tip is a sequence of steps that can be taken to solve a math problem in your head. Click the arrow below to see an example for the following problem:

÷
984
3
328

A tip like this one is available for every problem in Math Trainer, so there's always help if you get stuck. With enough practice, you'll be able to predict what the tips will say—you'll have learned mental math!


Get Better at Mental Math

The ability to quickly perform mental calculations offers advantages in certain circumstances. But even without applications, getting better at mental math is a great way to stimulate one’s mind. It develops better number sense and intuition for quantifying the world around us. Practicing mental calculation will strengthen your foundation for learning more advanced maths topics.

Nonetheless, the tangible benefits of improving at mental math are many. It is certainly expected that educated people are able to do simple arithmetic without having to pull out a calculator. An inability to do so may reflect poorly on you, while being well-practiced in mental calculation will leave your contemporaries impressed. In many scientific and technical circles, mental math ability is even more highly regarded.

For students, mental calculation speed will often have a direct impact on math and science test scores. At all grade levels, it is not sufficient to know how to solve math problems when tests have a time limit on them. The highest-scoring test takers are able to answer questions both correctly and efficiently. Improving mental math skills will only benefit a student’s academic career.

Calculating the solution to an arithmetic problem in your head is often faster than pulling out a device to tell you the answer. For example, figuring out how much to tip a server at a restaurant is a straightforward arithmetic problem that many people are unable to perform without a calculator. By training your brain to solve basic math problems, you can save time in situations like these.

Mental math can also be relied upon when calculation devices are not available. Even with the conveniences of modern life, we occasionally find ourselves without access to our cell phones or other capable devices. A mind skilled in mental math is always available to you.

Finally, getting better at mental math enables a quick estimate and sanity check on results obtained from calculators. While computers are extremely reliable at solving math problems, there is always the risk of incorrectly inputting the problem to the computer. By getting better at mental mathematics, you will develop an intuition for whether the results of calculators make sense.

In fact, the ability to estimate is often sufficient to avoid using calculators altogether. While the use of computers is widespread, estimation is an increasingly valued skill in many industries. There are many situations where complex math will eventually be required, but a preliminary estimate is needed quickly. A major boost to productivity!


Use a Math Trainer

Mental math ability is a lot like physical fitness training. You may be out of shape in the beginning, but with diligent training you can and will improve. Initially you might not enjoy the exercise, but you will reap significant rewards for your effort. As you become more fit, you’ll begin to enjoy the activity much more. If you are serious about it, your mental calculation fitness could become a source of energy, galvanizing you to face the challenges of life with enthusiasm.

In physical training, you break down the fibers in your muscles during a workout session. Your muscles actually sustain tiny tears during resistance training exercises. While you rest afterwards, your body repairs the damage, rebuilding the fibers thicker and stronger.

A similar process is believed to occur for cognitive tasks. A 2016 study found "extensive evidence that brain-training interventions improve performance on the trained tasks".1 Therefore you can expect training your brain to answer mental math questions will lead to improved performance over time.

In the context of physical fitness, a "trainer" often refers to a trained professional who guides the workout and recovery process. Personal trainers are tasked with assessing a trainee's level of ability, prescribing an exercise regimen, and offering feedback as the training goes along. The word "trainer" could also refer to a system that automates the role of a personal trainer. Many aerobic exercise machines today offer interactive training programs with feedback and analysis of a user's performance.

A math trainer is needed for optimal math fitness. Like in physical fitness, the trainer should be compatible with users at a variety of skill levels and should guide them to the next level. It should give an accurate assessment of a user's strengths and weakness, as well as offer helpful feedback on where to focus one's efforts. Learning the ropes of mental maths with a math trainer should be a seamless, rewarding journey to ever-greater abilities.


Mental Calculation

Mental calculation, or mental math, is performing arithmetical calculations without the aid of tools or supplies. As opposed to using a calculator or pencil and paper, mental math is performed entirely in one’s head.

People use mental calculation when computation aides are not available, when it is faster to do so, or when they wish to practice, show off, or participate in mental math competitions. Most people perform basic mental calculation using elementary arithmetic on a daily basis. An inability to calculate mentally is a serious obstacle to many common tasks.

In U.S. schools, mental calculation is taught only for the most elementary arithmetic, such as single-digit addition and multiplication of two numbers between 0 and 12. To solve addition problems involving multiple digits, you are taught to add columns of digits from right to left, carrying the tens digit if the column sum exceeds 9. For example, how would you approach this addition problem?

Example of two-digit
addition problem

If you were trained like many of us were, you’d add the right column to obtain 12. Since that’s two digits, you’d write the 2 under the right column and carry the 10 by writing a 1 above the left column. Finally, you’d add the two tens digits and the carried 1 to obtain the answer, 52.

To solve an addition problem mentally, it’s best to add the columns from left to right. In our example, you could add the tens digit of the second number, 30, to the first number, 14, to obtain 44. This is easier than the full problem because you’re just doing one mental calculation and tacking on the 4 from the 14 as the singles digit. Then you’d add the remaining ones digit of the second number, 8, to 44 to arrive at the answer, 52.

Which approach seems simpler to you? Can you do the first approach without pulling out a pencil and paper? It turns out the same advantages of left-to-right addition apply to much larger numbers as well. It’s unlikely that difficult addition problems can be solved right to left without needing to write it all out, which of course is more time consuming.

Mental math should be distinguished from the memorization of math facts such as multiplication tables. A foundation of memorized answers to simple math problems will make mental math easier, but performing maths in your head requires both memorized facts and the manipulation of numbers and operations to solve problems. This combination of skill and memory allows us to solve far more complex math questions than can be answered with readily-memorized math facts.

Many mental math tricks are specific to particular numbers or types of problems, usually dependent on the base of the number system used. In the decimal numeral system, for example, it is trivially easy to multiply by 10—just add a 0 to the end of the number. This mental math trick wouldn’t work in the hexadecimal numeral system, though, because the base is 16 instead of 10.

Therefore mental calculation is the ability to manipulate complex arithmetic problems in such a way that they can be resolved using simple memorized math facts.


Arithmetic

Arithmetic is the branch of mathematics concerning basic number operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. As kids, we are taught to do arithmetic because real-world math problems depend on a mastery of elementary arithmetic. Higher-level study of arithmetic and the integers, or whole numbers, is known as number theory.

Though the math kids initially study is arithmetic, the word is rarely used in this context anymore. Originally it comes from the Greek arithmos, meaning “number”. It has however been included in the “three Rs” of elementary Western education: reading, writing, and arithmetic.

There is evidence prehistoric humans were using arithmetic as hunter-gatherers. Archaeologists have uncovered a tally stick, believed to be over 20,000 years old, which may exhibit the earliest known sequences of prime numbers. An understanding of prime numbers, which are only divisible by themselves and the number 1, requires knowledge of the operation in arithmetic known as division.

From tally marks came base-10 numerals such as those used in Egypt over 5,000 years ago. Number systems based on 10 probably arose because humans have ten “digits” as fingers on their hands (or toes on their feet). A later advance in arithmetic was positional notation, which allowed the same symbols to represent different magnitudes depending on their position in the written number. These numeral systems allowed complex arithmetic to be communicated, recorded, and applied to the challenges faced by our ancestors.

The basic operation of arithmetic is addition. It combines two or more numbers into one, the sum of the terms. The terms can be added in any order, which is known as the commutative property of arithmetic. On a number line, the sum of two numbers is the total distance from zero covered by both numbers.

The inverse arithmetical operation of addition is subtraction. It finds the difference between two numbers. Subtraction is not commutative because the order of the numbers determines whether the answer is positive or negative. On a number line, the difference between two numbers is the distance between their positions.

A second basic operation of arithmetic is multiplication, which scales a number by another number. This second number is called a factor. Like addition, multiplication is commutative—you can change the order of the factors and still get the same answer. Multiplication on a number line can be viewed as adding the first number a total number of times equal to the second factor.

Finally, division is an arithmetical operation that is essentially the inverse of multiplication. Rather than scaling a number, it is divided into a number of pieces equal to the second number. Dividing by the number 0 is not defined in arithmetic because dividing something into zero pieces is impossible.

Basic arithmetic allows us to evaluate the answers to an unlimited number of mathematical expressions. Arithmetical expressions can be purely mathematical, as in 2 + 2, or they can represent quantities in the physical world, such as two items plus two more. Understanding the laws of arithmetic is tremendously powerful.


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